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Virknes un paralēlā slēguma efekti un defekti

Nesen viena diskusija aizgāja pavisam citā gultnē nekā tā sākās, kā tas bieži vien mēdz gadīties. Šoreiz tā, atšķirībā atkal no citām reizēm, aizgāja vērtīgā un produktīvā gultnē – es uzzināju kaut ko jaunu, bet jums jauns raksts.

Virsrakstā jau ir ietverta raksta „sāls” – atsevišķu skaļruņu vai viena skaļruņa vairāku spoļu saslēgšana virknes slēgumā vai paralēlajā slēgumā. Sākšu no paša sākuma, no elektriskā slēguma.

Pretestības

Katru skaļruni var aizstāt ar ekvivalentu slodzes pretestību, līdz ar to uz tiem darbojas tie paši fundamentālie elektrotehnikas likumi. Saslēdzot skaļruņus paralēli – katra skaļruņa plusu pie pastiprinātāja plusa un mīnus pie mīnusa – rezultējošo nominālo pretestību iegūstam pēc sekojošas formulas:

1/R=1/R1+1/R2+...+1/Rn,

kur R kopējā pretestība, bet Rn katra skaļruņa pretestība.

Saslēdzot skaļruņus virknē – pirmā skaļruņa plusu pie pastiprinātāja plusa, mīnusu pie nākamā skaļruņa plusa utt, līdz pēdējā skaļruņa mīnusu pie pastiprinātāja mīnusa - rezultējošo nominālo pretestību iegūstam pēc sekojošas formulas:

R=R1+R2+...+Rn

Ja skaļruņu pretestības ir vienādas, kā tas bieži vien ir auto audio jomā, tad formulas novienkāršojas. Paralēlajam slēgumam tā būs:

R=Rn/N

bet virknes slēgumam

R=N*Rn

kur Rn – viena skaļruņa pretestība, N – skaļruņu skaits.

Demfēšanas koeficients

Tas ir koeficients, ko izsaka kā slodzes pretestības attiecību pret pastiprinātāja pretestību

Kd=Rsl/Rpast

kur Kd – demfēšanas koeficients, Rsl – slodzes (skaļruņu) kopējā pretestība, Rpast – pastiprinātāja izejas pretestība.

Teorija un prakse saka to, ka, jo lielāks Kd jo labāk, t.i. pastiprinātājs labāk var kontrolēt skaļruņa difuzora kustību, līdz ar to precīzāk tiek atskaņots signāls (mūzika vai tml.). Labam pastiprinātājam Rpast~0,01oms. Līdz ar to pie ierastās Rsl=4omi Kd=400 . Katrā gadījumā arī Kd=10 vēl ir pieņemams, pie kā vēl nav dzirdamas īpašas izmaiņas atskaņojumā. Zemāks Kd jau gan vairs nav vēlams.

Tātad trīs vienkāršās formulas un viss, šķitīs pirmā brīdī ļoti skaisti – uztaisām pēc iespējas lielāku Kd, t.i. paaugstinām slodzes pretestību saslēdzot vairākus skaļruņus virknē, un iegšutam augstu Kd un līdz ar to precīzu atskaņojumu. Bet viss nemaz nav tik vienkārši - nedaudz atkārtojuši pamatus, turpināsim ar virsrakstā pieminētajiem efektiem un defektiem – t.i. kādi ir katra slēguma plusi un mīnusi.

Paralēlais slēgums

Galvenais pluss paralēlam slēguma ir slodzes pretestības pazemināšana, ar sekojošu pastiprinātāja jaudas pieaugumu. Kā nekā lielāka daļa skaļruņu ir ar 4omu pretestību mūsu „dārziņā”, bet no jebkura pastiprinātāja pie 2omu slodzes var iegūt lielāku izejošo jaudu, ko lielākā daļa vēlas. Pirmā brīdī šeit sāk raudāt kvalitātes piekritēji, jo tiem neder zemāks demfinga koeficients, bet dinamiskā diapazona labākai atskaņošanai arī viņi neatteiktos no lielākas jaudas. Bet nav ko satraukties, jo šādā gadījumā katram skaļrunim saglabāsies savs demfēšanas koeficients attiecībā pret pastiprinātāju. Tas pats nedaudz paaugstināsies, jo paralēli ar pastiprinātāju būs ieslēgta otra pretestības (skaļrunis), kas priekš pirmā skaļruņa pat pazeminās pastiprinātāja izejas pretestību. Tas gan neattiecas uz skaļruņiem ar divām spolēm (vai vairāk), tur demfēšanas koeficients gan kritīsies 2 reizes, jo spoles kustina vienu skaļruni, ar vienu rezultējošo 2 reizes mazāku pretestību.
Katrs skaļrunis arī vēl pats ražo EDS (elektrodzinējspeku – vienkāršāk spriegumu), kas tiks nodots otram skaļrunim, kas izmainīs tā difuzora kustību, ja tikai katru no tiem nepieslēgsim ar atsevišķu vadu pa tiešo pie pastiprinātāja. Šādā gadījumā pastiprinātāja zemā izejas pretestība vienkārši nošuntēs otru paralēli pieslēgto skaļruni, un EDS vairs nevarēs nokļūt uz otru skaļruni.

Virknes slēgums

Par to priecājas kvalitatīvākas atskaņošanas piekritēji, jo tā var iegūt lielāku rezultējošo pretestību, līdz ar to arī lielāku demfēšanas koeficientu. Bet priecājas tikai divspoļu (vai vairāk) skaļruņu gadījumā. Saslēdzot spoles virknē iegūsim 2 reizes lielāku pretesītību un 2 reizes augstāku demfēšanas koeficientu, jo šeit abas spoles darbojas uz vienu skaļruni.
Ja mums ir divi skaļruņi, tad jau ir bēdīgi, jo saslēdzot to virknē, mēs iegūstam demfēšanas koeficientu zemāku par 1, kas nu galīgi nav vēlams. Ja uz augstākām frekvencēm to vēl nejutīs, tad basi būs galīgi izplūduši, un nemaz nebūs tādi kādi ierakstīti un kā tiem vajadzētu skanēt. Kāpēc? Šeit jau otra skaļruņa pretestība summēsies pie pastiprinātāja pretestības.

Un demfēšanas koeficientu bojā ne tikai citi skaļruņi virknē, bet jebkura cita pretestība – tas pats vads, ar ko skaļrunis pieslēgts pie pastiprinātāj vai pasīvā filtra spoles. Tāpēc skaļruņus nevajag pieslēgt ar gariem un tieviem vadiem. Tāpat pasīvajos filtros spolēm jāizmanto pēc iespējas resnāki vadi, ko arī kārtīgi ražotāji dara.

Galu galā ...

... orientējamies uz paralēlo slēgumu jebkurā gadījumā, bet divspoļu skaļruņu gadījumā derēs arī virknes slēgums, kas ir galīgi nelietojams vairāku skaļruņu gadījumā.

Iesūtīja juriz, 2007-08-14 10:07:09 (apskatīts: 14727 reizes).

Komentāri par šo rakstu:
2007-08-14 15:19:00
kevins rakstīja:
piemeeram Kevins pasiivajos filtros tin spoles ar vada diametru 2,4mm un uz 4mH ieguust akuraat spoles pretestiibu 0,13 omi kevins suba un stuuzha savienoshanai izmanto 4mm2 25 metru garu vadu, kas dod kopeejo pretestiibu 0,21 omu. kevins izmanto single coil subu ar Z=8omi, taatad Kevina subu sisteemas demfeeshanas koeficients sanaak 8/(0,01+0,13+0,21)= 23 Kevins gan uzskata, ka par demfeeshanas koeficientu vinjam nav jaauztraucas, jo difuzora masa ir ne paaraak liela un pastiprinaataajam ar taa kontroli probleemu nav:)
2007-08-14 23:04:00
Loading rakstīja:
Vau! Super.. Tā turpināt. ĻOTI interisanta lasām viela!
2007-08-15 07:57:00
juriz rakstīja:
nu bet kevins, 23 jau ir pilnīgi normālas koeficients.
2007-08-18 13:58:00
miksd rakstīja:
"...pirmā skaļruņa plusu pie pastiprinātāja plusa... ...līdz pēdējā skaļruņa mīnusu pie pastiprinātāja plusa..." :)
2007-08-18 16:05:00
juriz rakstīja:
paldies, izlaboju
2007-12-20 17:47:00
Vil rakstīja:
<> Biķin neveigsmīgs apgalvojums, jo ja bezgalīgi saparalēlo n-tos skaļruņus tad to pretestība tuvinās nullei. Jauda no pastiprinātāja - pastiprinātājs var nodrošināt tik daudz jaudas cik tas vat - respektīvi tā tranzistori un barošanas avota iespējas - var iet runa par slodzes salāgošanu ar pastiprinātāja izejas pakāpi - lai tranzistori ( labi, arī lampas ja gribat )strādātu lineārā režīmā. Katra ZF pastiprinātāja shēmtehnika ir rēķināta uz pilnīgi konkrētu Z slodzi tika tā vienkārši manupulējot ar pieslēgto skaļruņu skaitu un izveidojas neatbilstoša pastiprinātāja izejas slodzes pretestība Z. Rezultāts - kropļojumi un sūnainam pastūzim (nav laba aizsardzība pret pārslodzi) gala traņi kaputt.... Tas tā, pārdomām.
2011-09-07 13:31:00
lemesis rakstīja:
sveiki,jautaajums nau par teemu,bet te ir pilns ar zinossiem cilveekiem......jaut par maajas muuziku.....man ir 800w tumbas ar 400rms un 8omu pretestiibu....jaut ir kaads man ir vajadziigs pastiprinaataajs....un 4izeju vai pietiks ar 2vu ,kuram driikst sleegt tiltaa.....paldies
2011-09-07 13:32:00
lemesis rakstīja:
un tumbas man ir 4ras...
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